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Bond Finance Resource Center

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Bonds are the bedrock of public development finance. They have been used to help build roads, bridges, sewers, dams, and thousand of other public and private projects. Bonds are issued and sold to the investing public by governmental entities to finance both governmental activities and the development of physical infrastructure and local economies.


There are two types of bonds: Government Bonds (GOs) and Private Activity Bonds (PABs). GOs may be used for many public purposes (e.g., highways, schools, bridges, sewers, jails, parks, government equipment and buildings, etc.). Private entities may not significantly use, operate, control, or own the facilities that are being financed. GOs benefit the general public, while PABs benefit private entities. PABs are the development finance mechanisms that drive projects involving both the public and private sector.


The CDFA Bond Finance Resource Center contains development finance tools that can be used to better understand the essentials of bond finance. Over 50,000 individual governments and authorities around the country issue bonds and the Bond Finance Resource Center is a comprehensive clearinghouse of information, case studies, and educational materials on the uses and function of bonds.


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-Understanding Bond Finance

Bonds are the bedrock of public development finance and serve as the primary source for financing many types of projects, including infrastructure, industrial development, and urban development. This section contains resources on understanding the basics of bond financing.

Read more about Bond Finance

Bonds as a Bedrock of Development FinanceMembers only Login
Bond financing remains the bedrock development finance tool for economic development. Seth Crone with The Bank of New York Mellon and Lee McCormick with Community Development Associates discuss how this long-standing tool can be used today to provide a significant portion of a project’s capital stack with a special focus on bond financing programs in Texas. Presenters from bond agencies and capital market firms will walk through bond deals and explore strategies for maximizing the tool throughout the state.
Municipal Bonds - Common TermsMembers only Login
RBC Wealth Management produced this brief glossary explaining some of the more commonly-used terms unique to the municipal bond industry.
Project Finance: Leveraging the Capital Stack
Financing economic development projects through bonds and a combination of other development finance tools is discussed by Jason Rittenberg in this cover story from Development Finance Perspectives, Issue 1 | 2012. The article features project photos submitted by CDFA members.
Built by Bonds
This unique publication from CDFA provides the definitive argument for tax-exempt bond finance, which is a critical tool for American economic development and job creation. Using both qualitative and quantitative analysis, Built by Bonds demonstrates the proven efficiency of tax-exempt bonds.
Bonds and the BasicsMembers only Login
Michael Barnes with Saul Ewing gave this overview presentation of tax-exempt bond finance and industrial development bonds.

-Resources

View all Bond Finance Resources

-Private Activity Bonds

Private Activity Bonds (PABs) may be used to address numerous economic development finance needs. They are issued for the benefit of private activities.

New TEFRA Regulations for Qualified Private Activity BondsMembers only Login
Beginning April 1, 2019, issuers of qualified private activity bonds will be governed by a new set of TEFRA regulations (the Final TEFRA Regulations). The Final TEFRA Regulations, which stem from the Treasury Department’s 2017 Proposed Regulations (REG 128841-07, September 28, 2017), retain many of the procedures and requirements described in the 2017 Proposed Regulations.
IRS Publication 5005- Your Responsibilities as a Conduit Issuer of Tax-Exempt BondsMembers only Login
The IRS Publication 5005 provides an overview for state and local governments of the responsibilities of the conduit issuer with respect to the tax compliance in municipal financing arrangements commonly known as conduit financings.
Private Activity Bonds: An IntroductionMembers only Login
An Introduction to Private Activity Bonds from the Congressional Research Service.
IRS Publication 4078: Private Activity BondsMembers only Login
This IRS Publication 4078, Tax-Exempt Private Activity Bonds, provides a revised overview of the general federal tax law rules that apply to qualified private activity bonds.
Private Activity Bonds 101Members only Login
Bill Spivey from Florida Development Finance Corporation and Joe Stanton from Broad and Cassel cover the fundamentals of bonds and give a brief overview of the bond market in Florida.
View more PAB Resources

-Types of Private Activity Bonds

The Internal Revenue Code (IRC) permits the financing of several types of facilities using qualified PABs, although they may be used partially or entirely for private purposes:

-Arbitrage & Rebate

Advanced Topics in ArbitrageMembers only Login
This lesson from the IRS reviews the elements of the different derivative and hedge products used in the municipal market. Derivative structures often involve credit enhancement in various forms. This lesson also reviews the requirements and treatment of qualified guarantees.
IRS Publication 4078: Private Activity BondsMembers only Login
This IRS Publication 4078, Tax-Exempt Private Activity Bonds, provides a revised overview of the general federal tax law rules that apply to qualified private activity bonds.
Making Something Positive from Negative Arbitrage Re: Public Finance TaxMembers only Login
Michael Cullers from Squire Patton Boggs writes on arbitrage and how an issuer might be able to derive some benefit from current negative arbitrage by foregoing otherwise available exceptions to yield restriction.
IRS Conference: Arbitrage Yield Restrictions & Rebate ComplianceMembers only Login
The IRS Office of Tax Exempt Bonds provided this presentation on arbitrage yield restrictions and rebate compliance. Topics include an arbitrage overview, filing requirements, and the rebate claims process.
View more Arbitrage & Rebate Resources

-Bond Insurance

Credit Enhancement: Letter of Credit & Bond Insurance Options
During this webcast our expert panel with Tony Portuondo at BNY Mellon, Steve Eikenberry with First American Bank, Scott Richbourg with Build America Mutual, and Chris Chafizadeh with Assured Guaranty discussed how credit enhancement works, what to expect given current market conditions, and the types of projects that have most successfully utilized bond insurance.
Is Bond Insurance an Option Again?
The availability of bond insurance has been scarce since about 2007, when bond insurers began to see ratings downgrades during the financial crisis. In fact, at that time, seven bond insurers where triple A rated, but now several are no longer in business and none have maintained their once high ratings. Last July, Build America Mutual (BAM), a new municipal bond insurer, was introduced, and many are wondering if bond insurance has found a new life. During this webcast, we heard Scott Richbourg and Don Farrell of Build America Mutual and Bill Hogan and Chris Chafizedah of Assured Guaranty discuss the latest in bond insurance, if it is a viable option again, and how issuers can access bond insurance if they desire.
View more Bond Insurance Resources

-Credit Enhancement

Letters of Credit (LOC) for Community DevelopmentMembers only Login
Patrick Rutledge, Public Finance Relationship Manager for FHLBank Atlanta, provides an overview of LOCs and discusses opportunities for affordable housing and economic development.
Credit Enhancement: Letter of Credit & Bond Insurance Options
During this webcast our expert panel with Tony Portuondo at BNY Mellon, Steve Eikenberry with First American Bank, Scott Richbourg with Build America Mutual, and Chris Chafizadeh with Assured Guaranty discussed how credit enhancement works, what to expect given current market conditions, and the types of projects that have most successfully utilized bond insurance.
View more Credit Enhancement Resources

-Deal Structuring

CDFA - PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series: What Your Bond Finance Team Worries AboutMembers only Login
During this webinar, Bethany Pugh, Managing Director at PFM, Todd Fraizer, Managing Director at PFM, Austin McGuan, Director, Stifel Nicolaus & Company, Matthew Eisel, Managing Director at PFM, and Robert McCarthy, Partner with Bricker & Eckler LLP discussed what bond finance teams across the country worry about.
View more Deal Structuring Resources

-Post-Issuance Compliance

CDFA - PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series: What Your Bond Finance Team Worries AboutMembers only Login
During this webinar, Bethany Pugh, Managing Director at PFM, Todd Fraizer, Managing Director at PFM, Austin McGuan, Director, Stifel Nicolaus & Company, Matthew Eisel, Managing Director at PFM, and Robert McCarthy, Partner with Bricker & Eckler LLP discussed what bond finance teams across the country worry about.
CDFA - PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series: Regulatory Landscape with MSRB and SEC FrameworkMembers only Login
This session discussed the recent amendments and how to prepare. The discussion included insights and reminders about how to remain compliant in all areas from main regulatory bodies for bond financing in the capital markets. Speakers on this session included Teri Guarnaccia with Ballard Spahr LLP, Leo Karwejna with Public Financial Management, and Julia Cooper with the City of San Jose.
2019 Proposed Bond Reissuance RegulationsMembers only Login
The Department of the Treasury's IRS released new Proposed Regulations regarding Bond Reissuance. The Proposed Regulations address the subject of “reissuance” in connection with issues of tax-exempt obligations. The Proposed Regulations generally follow the guidance set forth in IRS Notice 2008-41, 2008-1 CB 742.
IRS Publication 5005- Your Responsibilities as a Conduit Issuer of Tax-Exempt BondsMembers only Login
The IRS Publication 5005 provides an overview for state and local governments of the responsibilities of the conduit issuer with respect to the tax compliance in municipal financing arrangements commonly known as conduit financings.
Primer On Monitoring Post-Issuance ComplianceMembers only Login
This audio cast from the IRS covers the importance of implementing post-issuance compliance procedures and regularly monitoring those procedures to preserve the status of tax-advantaged bonds over the entire life of the bonds. Tax-advantaged bonds, includes tax-exempt bonds, tax credit bonds, and direct-pay bonds.
View more Post-Issuance Compliance Resources

-Rating Agencies

CDFA - PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series: Regulatory Landscape with MSRB and SEC FrameworkMembers only Login
This session discussed the recent amendments and how to prepare. The discussion included insights and reminders about how to remain compliant in all areas from main regulatory bodies for bond financing in the capital markets. Speakers on this session included Teri Guarnaccia with Ballard Spahr LLP, Leo Karwejna with Public Financial Management, and Julia Cooper with the City of San Jose.
Management Capacity and State Municipal Bond Ratings: Evidence With the GPP GradesMembers only Login
This study, authored by Jerry Zhao and David Guo, finds that states with higher GPP grades tend to have higher state GO bond ratings, but the relationship may be nonlinear as people are more sensitive to the extremes of perceived performance. In particular, the researchers observe a “performance premium” scenario in which S&P bond ratings grow at an increasing rate as state GPP grades improve.
View more Rating Agencies Resources

-Rules and Regulations

CDFA - PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series: What Your Bond Finance Team Worries AboutMembers only Login
During this webinar, Bethany Pugh, Managing Director at PFM, Todd Fraizer, Managing Director at PFM, Austin McGuan, Director, Stifel Nicolaus & Company, Matthew Eisel, Managing Director at PFM, and Robert McCarthy, Partner with Bricker & Eckler LLP discussed what bond finance teams across the country worry about.
New TEFRA Regulations for Qualified Private Activity BondsMembers only Login
Beginning April 1, 2019, issuers of qualified private activity bonds will be governed by a new set of TEFRA regulations (the Final TEFRA Regulations). The Final TEFRA Regulations, which stem from the Treasury Department’s 2017 Proposed Regulations (REG 128841-07, September 28, 2017), retain many of the procedures and requirements described in the 2017 Proposed Regulations.
CDFA - PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series: Regulatory Landscape with MSRB and SEC FrameworkMembers only Login
This session discussed the recent amendments and how to prepare. The discussion included insights and reminders about how to remain compliant in all areas from main regulatory bodies for bond financing in the capital markets. Speakers on this session included Teri Guarnaccia with Ballard Spahr LLP, Leo Karwejna with Public Financial Management, and Julia Cooper with the City of San Jose.
2019 Proposed Bond Reissuance RegulationsMembers only Login
The Department of the Treasury's IRS released new Proposed Regulations regarding Bond Reissuance. The Proposed Regulations address the subject of “reissuance” in connection with issues of tax-exempt obligations. The Proposed Regulations generally follow the guidance set forth in IRS Notice 2008-41, 2008-1 CB 742.
IRS Publication 5005- Your Responsibilities as a Conduit Issuer of Tax-Exempt BondsMembers only Login
The IRS Publication 5005 provides an overview for state and local governments of the responsibilities of the conduit issuer with respect to the tax compliance in municipal financing arrangements commonly known as conduit financings.
View more Rules and Regulation Resources

-Volume Cap Map and Database

CDFA Volume Cap Resource Center

The CDFA Volume Cap Resource Center allows users to search, sort, and compare comprehensive private activity bond volume cap data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia dating back to 2005.

Visit the CDFA Volume Cap Resource Center

How the Cap Is Used

-Case Studies

Limits of Disclosure Regulation in the Municipal Bond Market
Using a novel data set on municipal private debt disclosures, the authors of this academic research study the effectiveness and market impact of disclosure regulation in the municipal debt market. By comparing reportable private debt events to the universe of realized disclosures, we find evidence that issuers significantly underreport private debt.
State of the Market 2021 - Climate Bonds Initiative
This is the first State of the Market Report for North America. This report describes the shape and size of labelled green, social and sustainability (GSS) debt issued by entities domiciled in either the USA or Canada extending to the end of March 2021 (Q1 2021).
CDFA // BNY Mellon Development Finance Webcast Series: Bond Financing for Disaster ResponseMembers only Login
During this installment of the CDFA // BNY Mellon Development Finance Webcast Series, we looked at how bonds act as a resilient economic driver by financing the critical facilities and infrastructure that stabilize local economies during and after crises.
CDFA Charter Schools Financing Initiative: Development Finance Strategies for Charter Schools
CDFA's first publication of the CDFA Charter Schools Financing Initiative series, funded with support from the National Alliance For Public Charter Schools. This paper demonstrates how charter schools can access development finance tools and public finance and provides real-world examples of how these tools have been successfully implemented.
CDFA Food Finance White Paper Series: Advancing Food Systems Through Development Finance
This is the sixth and final white paper in a series examining the potential creation of a food systems asset class that supports the market growth of local and regional food systems. This paper presents three replicable strategies for restoring local food systems: reframe food systems development as infrastructure and economic development; build effective relationships and partnerships across the entire food system; and plan for strategic food system financing.
View more Case Studies

-Headlines

-Publications

Development Bond Finance Reference Guide
The Development Bond Finance Reference Guide provides practitioners with a solid foundation for understanding the use of tax-exempt bonds, with an emphasis on small issue industrial development bonds and 501(C)(3) bonds. With numerous examples of sample bond transactions and a glossary of municipal finance terms, this guide covers the essential elements of private activity bonds and the issuance process. 
Advanced Bond Finance Reference Guide
The Advanced Bond Finance Reference Guide is written for professionals who already have an understanding of tax-exempt financing and seek detailed instruction on complex financing techniques, including the application of financial derivatives, advance refundings, how to spot arbitrage issues, and investing bond proceeds. Also included are seven case studies of proven state and city bond guaranty programs. 
Practitioner's Guide to Economic Development Finance
The Practitioner's Guide to Economic Development Finance 2nd Edition is the only comprehensive resource dedicated to building and utilizing the development finance toolbox. The Practitioner's Guide provides the insight and practical information needed to critically understand how economic development is financed and the tools, strategies and techniques used to build strong communities. From bonds, tax increment finance and special districts to tax credits, seed & venture capital, revolving loan funds and much more, this Guide outlines the financing tools required for succeeding in today's competitive economic development climate.
Unlocking Capital: A Handbook for Becoming a High Performing Development Finance Agency
Unlocking Capital: A Handbook for Becoming a High Performing Development Finance Agency (Handbook) serves as a companion to the Practitioner’s Guide to help illuminate the structures of development finance agencies (DFAs), essential conduits to access development finance tools. The Handbook provides an overview of DFAs and their myriad roles in various development efforts. Included in this discussion is a comprehensive look at over a dozen high-performing DFAs throughout the country. The Handbook is designed to be a starting point for local leaders to engage in the creation or acceleration of a DFA to build and utilize the development finance toolbox.
View more Publications

-Webcasts

Legislative Briefing - June 2021
This CDFA Legislative Briefing took place on June 16, 2021. We discussed the status of the infrastructure bill and CDFA's latest efforts on Capitol Hill. We also outlined important action items that you can take to ensure that bond financing provisions are included in the infrastructure bill.
CDFA // BNY Mellon Development Finance Webcast Series: Social Impact Investing: Credit Ratings for CDFIsMembers only Login
During this installment of the CDFA // BNY Mellon Webcast Series, we explored the trend of CDFIs furthering their social impact investing goals by obtaining credit ratings to issue debt.
CDFA Food Systems Finance Webinar Series: Financing Food-Centered Redevelopment
During this installment of the CDFA Food Systems Finance Webinar Series, we explored how investing in food-centered redevelopment can restore local food systems infrastructure, catalyze additional neighborhood development, and protect healthy, sustainable communities.
CDFA // BNY Mellon Development Finance Webcast Series: Forecasting the Bond Market Amid the RecoveryMembers only Login
During this installment of the CDFA // BNY Mellon Development Finance Webcast Series, we explored the economic recovery and how it will affect the bond market since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
CDFA-PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series: Mitigating Default Risk with Bond Guarantee ProgramsMembers only Login
During the final installment of this year’s CDFA-PFM Capital Markets Webinar Series, we talked about bond guarantee and credit enhancement programs and how they can be a solution for long-term recovery.
View more Webcasts

CDFA National Sponsors

  • Baker Tilly
  • BNY Mellon
  • Bricker & Eckler LLP
  • Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner LLP
  • Business Oregon
  • CohnReznick
  • FBT Project Finance Advisors LLC
  • Frost Brown Todd LLC
  • gener8tor
  • Hawkins Delafield & Wood LLP
  • Ice Miller LLP
  • KeyBanc Capital Markets
  • Kutak Rock LLP
  • McGuireWoods
  • MuniCap, Inc.
  • NW Financial Group, LLC
  • PGAV Planners, LLC
  • SB Friedman Development Advisors
  • Stern Brothers
  • Stifel Nicolaus
  • U.S. Bank
  • Wells Fargo Securities
  • Z. The Bond Buyer
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